唐道述专家视角【195期】精益从哪里开始?Where should I start with Lean?

发布日期:2018-04-30    作者:唐道述    点击:1次

本篇作者Jon Miller先生在上世纪90年代和大野耐一的优秀学生在美国联合技术公司UTC指导改善,实践并推动精益实践二十余年的精益大师,设计和主导如飞利浦等众多全球跨国集团企业精益转型项目。Jon Miller先生能够讲流利的英中日文,他著有新乡奖获奖书籍《创建改善文化》一书,并兼任唐道述精益战略咨询北美董事,也是GembaAcademy学院创设人。

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精益应该从哪里开始?有人说先从5S做起,也有人从消除七大浪费开始。一个优秀的切入点提问应该是“你想解决什么问题?”  


Where should I startwith Lean? Some say starting with 5S is a must.  Others favor eliminatingthe seven deadly wastes. Others still suggest value stream mapping.  Agreat question is “What problem are your trying to solve?”


精益思想和行为转化往往都与标准达成和绩效期望实现相关,依我的观点,这就是很好的起点。

The need for atransition to lean thinking and acting is often related to standards not beingmet and performance expectations not being realized.  The need to adhereto standards, in my view, is often a good place to start.


我了解的一家制造公司多年来一直与受挫于生产系统中某个部门,该部门的气氛经常让人难以忍受,士气低落、报废、返工、二次检查和加班是常见的问题。该部门主管找到了新的工作,这样部门主管岗位就I空缺了,一位来自于其他部门的主管担任了这个麻烦部门的空缺职位。


A manufacturingcompany I know very well struggled for years with one particular productiondepartment.  The company consistently delivered high quality products tothe customer.  At the same time the atmosphere within this department wasoften difficult to endure.  Low morale, scrap, rework, secondaryinspection, and overtime were common problems. The departmentsupervisor pursued another opportunity outside the organization creating anopportunity for new leadership.  A supervisor from a smaller departmentwas moved into the vacated position in the larger, troubled department.


新主管管理员工方式非常直接,即坚定不移地遵循标准,并高标准地要求团队。新主管不是口头要求大家遵循标准,相反,她成功向团队展示什么是遵循标准。


Her approach with theworkforce was direct.  She was unwavering in her adherence to standardsand had very high expectations of her team members.  She wasn’t one tolecture the team on the rules.  Instead, she demonstrated her requirementsof the team without fail.


每次生产班次都需要操作员工手工填写多个表格,每班结束后这些表格都会提交给主管。那怕表格只有一个小错误,主管也会退回给员工。例如,即使没有信息需要记录,表格上相应的方格也要填上相应信息,如用一个简单的N/A或划线就足够了。如果已上交的表格里还有未填写的空格,主管简要说明该项工作低于设定的标准,用红线标示该文件后退还给操作员工,让员工在离开工作前重新填写。


Every production runincluded several forms to be hand-written by the operators.  These formswere submitted to the supervisor at the end of the run.  The supervisorrejected every form containing even the slightest error.  For example,company SOP stated every box on a form was to be populated, even if there wasno information to record there.  A simple “N/A” or strikethrough would besufficient.  Forms were regularly submitted with empty boxes.  Thesupervisor simply explained the work was below standards, redlined thedocument, and returned it to the operator to rewrite before leaving for theday.


操作员工很快学会要注重细节,并且按照标准完成工作。没有对日常活动进行任何改变,仅仅确保标准得以实施,该部门的绩效就得到显著提高。


The operators quicklylearned to pay attention to detail and complete their work according tostandards.  With no other changes to the day-to-day activities thanmaintaining the standards that were already in place, the performance of thedepartment improved dramatically.


一旦标准得到实施,许多原有问题也开始消失。第一个明显的区别是士气有所提高,废料和返工也开始改善。主管对不遵守标准的零容忍可能会让有些人认为团队会不满,但结果却相反,大家非常喜欢这种方式,团队相信正确的事情正在以正确的方式进行。


Once the standardswere being met, many problems started to go away.  The first noticeabledifference was that morale had improved.  Scrap and rework started toimprove as well.  While some thought the team wouldn’t respond well to thesupervisor’s absolute intolerance of not following the rules, the result wasthat people liked it.  They were able to trust the right things were beingdone the right way.


一旦现有的标准得到遵循,持续改进也就开始了。


Once the preexistingstandards were being met, continuous improvement could begin.


将精益工具应用于功能失调的组织是徒劳的,正如大野耐一所说:“没有标准的地方就不会有改善。”


Applying lean toolsto a dysfunctional organization is a wasted effort.  As Ohno said, “Wherethere are no standards there can be no kaizen.”


当我们兴高采烈开始精益之旅时,急于学习使用精益工具。但问题是,“对于一个拿着锤子的人来说,他眼中的问题都像钉子。”我们试图改善那些还没有标准的地方。有时最好是把工具放回工具箱,花费必要的时间和精力来准备工作场地。


When we get excited about the idea of beginning a lean journey it’s easy to want to start usinglean tools right away.  The problem with that is that “To a man with ahammer, everything looks like a nail.”  We attempt to improve where thereis no standard.  Sometimes the best thing to do is to put the tools in thetoolbox and spend as much time and effort as necessary to prepare the worksite.


对已有的规则、程序和标准追求完美,在关注于精益工具使用前先培养精益行为。当坚持遵循标准的文化建立时,团队已经做好持续改进的准备了。


Seek perfection infollowing the rules, procedures, and standards that are already inplace.  Develop lean behaviors before worrying about putting leantools to use.  When there is a culture of consistently meeting all standards,then the the team is prepared to begin improvement.