唐道述专家视角【170期】道家思想、精益思维与人性尊重

发布日期:2018-02-26    作者:唐道述    点击:1次

  人工智能与机器学习正在改变这个世界,精益与自働化及其与道家学说的深远关系,在这股方兴未艾的潮流下,精益思想无疑扮演着所有应用原则中最重要也最具启发的角色。本篇由 JonMiller所撰写文章 “道家思想,精益思想与人性尊重” (Taoism, Lean Thinking and Respect for Humanity), 相信能让精益路上孜孜寻找科技与人性平衡的践行者有所收获。

  本文作者是实践并推动精益二十余年的精益大师,设计和主导如飞利浦等众多全球跨国集团企业精益转型项目。他能够讲流利的中日文,对于老庄思想有深入研究;他著有新乡奖获奖书籍《创建改善文化》一书,并且是唐道述精益战略咨询北美董事,也是Gemba Academy学院创设人。  

  我之前曾经写过道家思想与 TPS又名精益之间的异曲同工之处。东方哲学思想对于丰田之道的影响是显而易见的,因为大野耐一先生与其他精益学说的架构者都来自这样的文化。道家思想对于 TPS如何合理安排工作有显著的影响力,强调由简驭繁、朴实无华、顺应 (而不是对立) 自然,以及 “无为”。和有着许多规则和限制使生活更复杂的哲学教条是截然不同的。道家领导力体现藉由谦逊、关怀(虚怀若谷)之道,进行有效的领导,有勇气知所进退,并且归功于他人。道家思想深入探究人性尊重(天人合一)。

  I’ve written before on the parallels between Taoism and TPS a.k.a. lean thinking. It is not surprising thatwe find influences from so-called Eastern philosophies, as Taiichi Ohno and theothers framers the Toyota Way were from that culture. Taoism is evident withinTPS in how work is organized. The emphasis is on keeping things simple, beingfrugal, going with the flow of nature rather than against, and beingeffortless. This is in contrast to more rigid philosophies that complicate lifewith many rules and restrictions. Taoist leadership means being effectivethrough humility, compassion, having the courage to advance as well as retreat,and giving credit to others. Taoism delves into respect for humanity.

  有个关于旅行哲人看到老农夫在田里耕种的故事 《庄子·天地篇》。老农夫用水瓮从井里取水灌溉农田,而这个旅行的智者眼见农夫辛苦取水,便提议:我知道有个工具可以让你工作的更有效率,于是走向前去讲述、一个能利用绳子、杠杆与水桶组合成的奇妙装置以便从井里引水。老农夫笑道:我不是不知道这个,而是选择不用它。我听师父说:机械导致机事,机事导致机心。农夫宁可徒手工作因为他坚信 “机械将以不良的方式影响行为、思考、与人格” 的智慧哲理。从现代的价值观来看,我们可能认为老农夫是固执、迷信、甚至愚蠢到不愿采纳能让他工作便利的科技工具。

  There is a story of a traveling philosopher who saw anold farmer working hard in his field. The farmer used a vase to draw water froma well to water his fields. The traveler watched the farmer’s struggles andoffered, “I know of a tool that will make your work much more efficient,” andproceeded to describe the contraption of a rope, pulley and bucket to drawwater from the well. The farmer laughed, “It is not that I don’t know of this,I choose not to use it. I heard my master tell, ‘Machines lead to mechanicalactions, and mechanical actions lead to machinations in my heart.'” The oldfarmer preferred to work by hand because he believed the wisdom that machinesinfluence his actions, his thoughts and his character, in unwanted ways. Bymodern values, we may think the old farmer is stubborn, superstitious or evenfoolish for choosing not to use a technological invention that will make hiswork easier.

  庄子是公元前四世纪的中国哲人,道家思想的创始者之一。也是开始思考机械哲理的人。我相信这部分与现今如何实践精益思维以及如何每天生活都有很深层的关联性。让我们一起探掘庄子怎么说。

  Master Zhuan, a.k.a. Zhuanzi, is the fourth centuryChinese philosopher and one of the founders of Taoist thought. It was Zhuanziwho spoke the wisdom about machines. I believe it has deep relevance today forboth how we practice lean thinking and in how we live our day-to-day lives.Let’s explore Zhuanzi’s words.

  有机械者

  Where there are machines

  必有机事

  People behave in mechanistic ways

  有机事者必有机心

  When people behave mechanistically, thinking becomes mechanical

  机心存于胸中

  Within mechanistic hearts

  则纯白不备

  There is no purity

  纯白不备

  Where there is no purity

  则神生不定

  There is no God

  神生不定者

  Where there is no God

  道之所不载也

  That is not the Way

  简而言之,”当人类太依赖科技,我们便会失去一些人性,而这样是不对的。”

  A simpler way to phrase this maybe, “When we rely too much on technology, we lose some of our humanity, andthis is not right.”

  千百年以来,机器持续不断地丰富我们的生活。几乎每个世代都会经历科技演进而破坏社会的一段时期。在数字时代,机器成为我们与其他人在社会及财务的现实连结界面。毫无疑问地,这改变了我们沟通、行动、与思考的方式。以社群媒体为例,尽管是有益的,但它却允许我们互相说些彼此面对面不可能说的话。科技创新把我们带入到社会中大家都不熟悉的行为、思维和生活的方式。不管相信与否,庄子警告这样的过程将使我们的心灵不纯净,这不是道所追求的简单、谦逊、关怀、与无为而治。

  Machines have progressively enriched our lives forhundreds of years. Nearly every generation experiences some sort oftechnological advance that disrupts society for a period of time. In thisdigital age we are inviting machines to become the de facto social andfinancial interfaces with other humans. It is without doubt that this haschanged how we communicate, how we act and how we think. As an example, socialmedia, despite its benefits, allows us to say things to each other that wewould never say face to face. We allow the technological innovation to draw usinto unfamiliar ways of behaving, thinking, and existing in society. Whether ornot we believe, as Zhuanzi warns, that this makes our spirits less pure, this isnot the Way (Tao) of simple, humble, compassionate, effortless being.

  若将机心与机械替换成精益,后果会如何?使用精益工具手法就能成就 精益行为或精益思维吗?实践精益的确能够聚焦于培养服务他人、预防/解决问题的思考与行为模式。作为精益带来后果,人类还保有纯净的心境吗?或许,这需视我们在精益里面包含什么而定。 就像老农夫的故事,难道精益代表的是一种合理、实用、带来效率与生产力的发明或手法工具,但与此同时,它却逼着我们丢弃对于工作保有感恩之心吗?在人类采用新科技或类似精益的新方法的同时,若没有考虑这将如何影响我们周遭的生活,我们就在冒着用人性交换效率的风险。

  If we replace the words “mechanical” and “machine”above with Lean, what would happen? Do “Lean tools” result in “lean actions”and “lean thoughts?” The practice of can certainly develop patterns of thoughtand behavior focused on serving others, preventing and solving problems. As aresult of Lean, do we have hearts that are pure and inviting to the Spirit?Perhaps, but this depends on what we include in “Lean”. Like the old farmer inthe story, does Lean represent an invention or tool that is rational, useful,bringing efficiency and productivity, but also threatens to make us loseappreciation for our work? When we adopt a new technology, or a methodologylike Lean, without considering how it will affect the lives of humans aroundus, we risk trading some of our humanity for efficiency.

  或许庄子只是天真地想象一个无科技创新、但众人互重与和谐生活的理想世界。尽管是在两千三百多年前,他在中国的生活中还是充斥了比前人甚至比邻国更先进的技术发展。举庄子为例,并不是要禁止对机器或科技创新,而是对不经思索就采纳看似让我们更有效率的发明、工具、或方法的心态提出警告。当我们允许机器、创新、或精益的方法加速人类的生活,就一定会对人与人的和谐相处产生干扰,这不是大家所愿意看到的后果,而这也不是道。

  Perhaps Zhuanzi naively imagined an ideal world wherepeople lived in mutual respect and harmony, free from technologicalinnovations. But even 1700 years ago, his life in China was full of technicaladvances compared to his ancestors or even compared to neighboring countries. Itake Zhuanzi’s words not to be a prohibition on machines or technologicaladvances, but a warning against unthinking adoption of these advances, toolsand methods that seem to make us more efficient. When we allow machines,innovations or Lean methods to speed up our lives, there are always unintendedconsequences that disturb harmony between people, and that is not the Way.

  节录:《庄子•天地篇》

  “子贡南游于楚,反于晋,过汉阴,见一丈人方将为圃畦,凿隧而入井,抱瓮而出灌,愲愲然用力甚多而见功寡。子贡曰:“有械于此,一日浸百畦,用力甚寡而见功多,夫子不欲乎?”为圃者仰而视之曰:“奈何?”曰:“凿木为机,后重前轻,挈水若抽,数如泆汤,其名为槔。”为圃者忿然作色而笑曰:“吾闻之吾师,有机械者必有机事,有机事者必有机心。机心存于胸中则纯白不备。纯白不备则神生不定,神生不定者,道之所不载也。吾非不知,羞而不为也。”子贡瞒然惭,俯而不对。”